During a comprehensive eye examination, your eye doctor will screen for vision related problems and medical eye conditions that could impact your vision or eye health. The following steps are those typically completed during your comprehensive eye examination.

Patient History

During and throughout your eye exam, your doctor will ask about your prior eye history, medical history, current & past medications, family medical/eye history and many other important aspects. The doctor will ask about current symptoms or signs that impact your vision or eye health.

Visual Acuity

Visual acuity is the way your doctor determines how well you are able to see at far distances or near. The doctor determines how well you are able to see. How well you are able to see is determined by vision correction or eye diseases.

Preliminary Tests

Your doctor of optometry may look at several unique aspects of your vision or eye health that may include: depth perception, color vision, eye muscle movements, peripheral (side vision), pupil responses, and several other aspects pending your initial concerns.


These tests or high-tech machines measure the curvature of the cornea (front surface of the eye) by focusing a circle of light on the cornea and measuring its reflection. This helps your doctor of optometry with an initial start of your ophthalmic prescription, the best contact lens for your unique eye (based upon specific measurements) and other critical aspects to rule out underlying eye diseases.


Your doctor of optometry then uses an instrument called a phoropter or an autophoropter (electronic form) to determine your ‘refractive power’ to aide in correction nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism.


Your doctor of optometry will check your eye pressures, which is one factor potentially leading to a disease called glaucoma. There are a number of ways to check your eye pressures. At Wallerich Eye Care, we use a device called the iCare tonometer. There is no “air puff” utilized during this test, which has created a more seamless experience for our patients.

Eye Focusing, Eye Teaming and Eye Movement Testing

To allow for a clear, single image, the eyes must work in concert or tougher to be able to change focus, move and work in unison. Your doctor of optometry may test accommodation (ability to focus), ocular motility (eye movement) and binocular vision (the ability of your eyes to work well together) during your visit. This is important for traumatic brain injury patients and for pediatric patients.

Eye Health Evaluation

Your doctor of optometry uses microscopes, lenses and other digital technology to aide in the assessment of your eye health of the eye and surrounding structures of the eye. Dilating your eyes in office is always recommended for patients with a history of systemic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, thyroid disease and many others) and to ensure excellent eye health to rule out retinal disease (retinal detachments, retinal holes, retinopathy), optic nerve disorders (glaucoma, optic neuropathy, etc.) or macula conditions (macular degeneration, macular edema, etc.).

Supplemental Testing

Your doctor of optometry may recommend additional testing after or based upon findings of your comprehensive eye examination. Special testing may include the following:

  • Fundus Photography: Photo of the back of your eye with an interpretation component to compare findings for future visits
  • Optical Coherence Tomography: Non-invasive imaging technology used to obtain high resolution scans of the back part of your eyes (retina, optic nerve, vasculature)
  • Topography: Non-invasive elevation map of the front surface of the eye to rule out corneal conditions (keratoconus, pellucid marginal degeneration, irregular astigmatism, corneal ectasia and others)
  • Visual Field Test: Device capable of measuring your side vision in all directions and the sensitivity of your vision in all parts of your visual field (peripheral vision)